As we go to press, Myanmar’s state counsellor and de facto leader Aung San Suu Kyi has responded to Gambia’s complaint in the International Court of Justice, beginning a courtroom struggle between officials speaking for the two nations. René Wadlow gives the background to the court’s role in preventing genocide
The Government of Gambia on November 11, 2019 has brought to the Inter -national Court of Justice (ICJ) in the Hague a complaint against the Government of Myanmar for violation of the 1948 Convention on Genocide concerning actions against the Rohingya. Under the rules of the ICJ, Member States can bring action against other Member States over disputes alleging breaches of international law, in this case the Convention on the Prevent ion and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
All members of the United Nations are automatically members of the ICJ. However, most cases before the World Court concern actions touching upon the States involved, such as frontier limitations on which the ICJ has been particularly active.
In this case, Gambia is acting as the conscience of the world society, not being the country from which the Rohingya are fleeing nor the country to which they flee. The Attorney General of Gambia, Abubacarr Marie Tambadou, who had served as a special assistant to the prosecutor at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda said: “The case is to send a clear message to Myanmar and the rest of the international community that the world must not stand by and do nothing in the face of the terrible atrocities that are occurring around us. It is a shame for our generation that we do nothing while genocide is unfolding before our own eyes.”
The Genocide Convention is a landmark in the effort to develop a system of universally accepted standards that promote an equitable system of world law for all members of the human family to live together in dignity.
There have been repeated appeals to make the 1948 Genocide Convention operative world law. The then UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan in an address at UNESCO on December 8,1998: “Many thought, no doubt, that the horrors of the Second World War – the camps, the cruelty, the exterminations, the Holocaust—could not happen again. And yet they have. In Cambodia, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Rwanda. Our time—this decade even—has shown us that man’s capacity for evil knows no limits. Genocide—the destruction of an entire people on the basis of ethnic or national origins – is now a word of our time too, a stark and haunting reminder of why our vigilance must be eternal.”
The Genocide Convention has mechanisms for dealing with complaints concerning violations. Article VIII says “Any Contracting Party may call upon the competent organs of the United Nations to take such action under the Charter of the United Nations as they consider appropriate for the prevention and suppression of acts of genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in Article III.”
Article III states “The following acts shall be punishable:
When the Convention was being drafted, the competent organ of the United Nations was thought to be the Security Council. However, despite factual evidence of mass killings, in some countries with an intent to destroy “in whole or in part” an ethnic group, no Contracting Party to the Genocide Convention has ever called for any action under Article VIII of the Convention. Now Gambia has acted and focused on the highest legal body within the UN system.
Genocide is one of the crimes on which the International Criminal Court (ICC) can act. The ICC opened a preliminary inquiry into Myanmar’s alleged crimes against the Rohingya based on the UN’s 444-page report of the UN-created Independent International Fact Finding Mission on Myanmar which said in August 2018 that the Myanmar army’s tactics were “grossly disproportionate to actual security threats” and that “military necessity would never justify killing indiscriminately, gang raping women, assaulting children and burning entire villages.” It is not known what action the ICC will undertake.
The action of Gambia is important as it focuses both on the mechanisms of world law and the dramatic conditions of the Rohingya.
René Wadlow is president, Association of World Citizens.
For a detailed study of the drafting of the 1948 Genocide Convention and subsequent normative developments, see William A. Schabas, Genocide in International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p 624) [IDN-InDepthNews – 13 November 2019]