Restrictions on women’s sports and physical activity have nothing to do with culture or religion, but rather, are fueled by the ruling elite as a means to control the population.
A Saudi decision to license within weeks the kingdom’s first women-only gyms constitutes progress in a country where women’s rights are severely curtailed. It also lays bare the limitations of Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman’s plan for social and economic reforms that would rationalize and diversify the kingdom’s economy.
Restrictions on what activities the gyms will be allowed to offer reflects the power of an ultra-conservative religious establishment and a segment of Saudi society critical of reforms to the country’s economy—long-overdue actions which became inevitable once oil revenues began to drop sharply.
The licensing rules were announced by Princess Reema bin Bandar, vice president for women’s affairs of the General Authority of Sports and the kingdom’s sports czar, and are focussed on Prince Mohammed’s “Vision 2030” economic plan. This reform package would involve streamlining government expenditure, including public health costs, in a country which boasts one of the world’s highest rates of obesity and diabetes.
“It is not my role to convince the society, but my role is limited to opening the doors for our girls to live a healthy lifestyle away from diseases that result from obesity and lack of movement,” Princess Reema said in announcing the licensing.
Princess Reema, the kingdom’s first-ever women’s sports official, hopes to open gyms in every district and neighbourhood in the kingdom. The move constitutes progress in a country that has yet to introduce sports in public girls’ schools and has no public facilities for women’s sports.
Commercially run gyms catering primarily to upper and upper middle class women as well as privately organized women’s sports teams have been operating in the kingdom in a legal nether land for several years.
Princess Reema indicated that gyms would be licensed to focus on activities such as swimming, running and bodybuilding but not for sports such as soccer, volleyball, basketball, and tennis.
The licensing rules are in line with a policy articulated in 2014 by Mohammed al-Mishal, the secretary-general of Saudi Arabia’s Olympic Committee. At the time, Mr. Al-Mishal, responding to pressure by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), said women would only be allowed to compete in disciplines that were “accepted culturally and religiously in Saudi Arabia” and conform to a literal interpretation of the Qur’an. Mr. Al-Mishal identified such sports as equestrian, fencing, shooting, and archery.
They are also in line with unrealistic hopes—abandoned several years ago—to emphasize individual rather than team sports in a men’s only national sports plan. The idea to de-emphasize team sports was intended to limit the potential of soccer becoming a venue of anti-government protest as it had in Egypt and elsewhere during the 2011 popular Arab revolts. It proved unrealistic given that Saudi Arabia, like most nations in the region, is soccer-crazy. Saudi Arabia announced earlier this month that it would privatize five of the kingdom’s top soccer clubs.
The licensing of women’s gyms is occurring even though Vision 2030 made no reference to facilities for women. The document also failed to even implicitly address demands by the IOC and human rights groups that women be allowed to compete freely in all athletic disciplines rather than only ones mentioned in the Qur’an.
The Washington-based Institute of Gulf Affairs, headed by Saudi dissident Ali al-Ahmed, reported in 2014 that up to 74 percent of adults and 40 percent of children are believed to be overweight or obese.
“Women in Saudi Arabia are being killed softly by their government. Not by public executions or brutal rapes and beatings, but by day-to-day restrictions imposed on them by their government…It must be understood that restrictions on women sports and physical activity have nothing to do with culture or religion, but rather, are fuelled by the ruling elite as a means to control the population. As long as the Saudi government continues to claim that such bans are a result of cultural and personal practices, women will continue to suffer a decline in physical and mental health, as well as their social, economic and political status,” the report asserted.
It said that the restrictions amounted to “an almost completely sedentary lifestyle forced on women by the government through a de facto ban on physical education and sports participation for women that stems from the Wahhabi imperative of ‘keeping women unseen.’”
Saudi media have reported that lack of exposure to sun had led to vitamin D deficiency among 80 percent of Saudi women.
A Human Rights Watch report concluded last year that “inside Saudi Arabia, widespread discrimination still hampers access to sports for Saudi women and girls, including in public education.”
The group noted that Saudi women were denied access to state sports infrastructure and barred from participating in national tournaments and state-organized sports leagues as well as attending men’s national team matches as spectators. Women have difficulty accessing the 150 clubs that are regulated by the General Authority, which organizes tournaments only for men.
Human Rights Watch called on the Saudi government to demonstrate its sincerity by making physical education for girls’ mandatory in all state schools; ensuring that women can train to teach physical education in schools; establishing sports federations for women and allows them to compete domestically and internationally; supporting women who want to compete in international sporting competitions on an equal footing with men; and allowing women to attend sporting events involving men’s teams.
“Saudi authorities need to address gender discrimination in sports, not just because it is required by international human rights law, but because it could have lasting benefits for the health and well-being of the next generation of Saudi girls,” Human Rights Watch director of global initiatives Minky Worden said at the time.
Dr. James M. Dorsey is a senior fellow at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies and author of the forthcoming Shifting Sands, Essays on Sports and Politics in the Middle East and North Africa.